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House Bill 59

Suffrage Constitutional Amendment Timeline, 1909

Following House Bill 59 Through the Washington Legislature

House Bill 59 (HB 59) was introduced to the Washington Legislature during the 1909 session. The bill required 2/3 majority vote in each house because it was a Constitutional Amendment. Appearing below is a chronology of the bill through the legislature in 1909 that authorized the constitutional amendment vote on women’s suffrage, held November 8, 1910.

Representative T. J. Bell, a Tacoma Republican, introduced the legislation in the House on January 20, 1909. Bell was a wet or anti-prohibitionist who published the Tacoma News Herald. He and Representative Frank Bradsberry, a Republican from Sedro-Woolley, championed the legislation. The success of the legislation relied on Progressive affiliation rather than party-line votes. The bill was not highly publicized in the press, receiving only passing attention. Race track gambling and local option prohibition received much more press.1

January 20, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 88

HB 59 introduced by Rep. T. J. Bell, R. Pierce County

“An act to amend article 6 of the constitution of the State of Washington, relating to the qualification of voters within the state.” Emma Smith DeVoe drafted the suffrage legislation with Sen. George Cotterill, a Seattle Democrat and renowned reformer, and likely Bell the sponsor.

Referred to the Committee on Constitutional Revision. Chaired by anti- Edward B. Palmer.

Seattle Times

Representative Frank Bradsberry: “I believe women have been given the worst of it, and if they want anything from me they can have it. What’s more, I want to tell you fellows that they can come to my seat with any petitions or requests they have and I will put them through or the House will know there has been a fight.”


January 21, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 100

Upon request, the speaker re-referred HB No. 59 to the Committee on Privileges and Elections. Bell was a member of this Committee.


January 29, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 163, 165-167

REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES

House bill No. 59: Majority recommend that it do pass as amended; minority that it be indefinitely postponed.

SECOND READING OF BILLS
House of Representatives
Olympia, Wash. January 28, 1909

Mr. Speaker:

We, your Committee on Privileges and Elections, to whom was referred HB No. 59, entitled “An act to amend article six (6) of the Constitution of the State of Washington, related to the qualification of voters within the state,” have had the same under consideration and we, a majority, report the same back to the House with the recommendation that it do pass as amended:

That line 4 of section 3 of the printed bill, being line 6 of section 3 of the original bill, be amended by striking the word “the” after the word "within” and inserted in lieu thereof the word “this.”

John A. Fancher, Chairman (R-Spokane)

We concur in this report: Frank C. Jackson, T. J. Bell, W. J. Boone, Ole Hanson, R. S. Lambert.

House of Representatives
Olympia, Wash. January 28, 1909

Mr. Speaker:

We, your Committee on Privileges and Elections, to whom was referred HB No. 59, entitled “An act to amend article six (6) of the Constitution of the State of Washington, related to the qualification of voters within the state,” have had the same under consideration and we, a minority report the same back to the House with the recommendation that it be indefinitely postponed.

E. B. Palmer (R-King County)
J. R. Burke (R-Wahkiakum)


The bill was read the second time by sections and, on motion of Mr. Fancher, the committee amendment was adopted. Mr. Palmer moved the adoption of the minority report. Mr. Bell moved, as a substitute motion, the adoption of the majority report. Roll call on the substitute motion was demanded and the substitute motion was carried by the following vote; Yeas, 68; nays, 24; absent or not voting, 3.

Those voting yea were:

  • Anderson (John)
  • Anderson (Nels)
  • Anderson (W.T.)
  • Bell
  • Bird
  • Bolinger
  • Boone
  • Bradsberry
  • Buchanan
  • Buck
  • Byerly
  • Calkins
  • Cameron
  • Campbell (F.T.)
  • Campbell (J.E.)
  • Christensen
  • Clark
  • Cline
  • Cogswell
  • David
  • Denman
  • Edge
  • Eldridge
  • Fancher
  • Farnsworth
  • Fisher
  • French
  • Gordon
  • Hall
  • Halsey
  • Hanson (H.H.)
  • Hanson (Ole)
  • Hayward
  • Holm
  • Hubbell
  • Jackson (F.C.)
  • Jackson (R.A.)
  • Jeffries
  • Kayser
  • Krouse
  • Lambert
  • McArthur
  • McClure
  • McGregor
  • McInnis
  • McKinney
  • McMaster
  • McMillan
  • Morris
  • Reeve
  • Rogers
  • Rudene
  • Sayre
  • Scott
  • Shutt
  • Spedden
  • Stevens (A.M.)
  • Stone
  • Sweet
  • Taylor
  • Thompson (H.W.)
  • Thompson (T.A.)
  • Todd
  • Tonkin
  • Vollmer
  • Ward
  • Whalley
  • Young
  • Mr. Speaker (Leo O. Meigs)

 

Those voting nay were:
  • Beach
  • Bishop
  • Bugge
  • Burke
  • Cameron
  • Carlyon
  • Erickson
  • Halferty
  • Hewitt
  • Kenoyer
  • Leonard
  • Locke
  • Miller
  • Morse
  • Norris
  • Palmer
  • Renick
  • Sims
  • Slayden
  • Sparks
  • Stephens ( E.M.)
  • Tennant
  • Thayer
  • Webster
Those absent or not voting were:
  • Ghent
  • Stuart
  • Weir

On motion of Mr. Palmer, the rules were suspended, the second reading considered the third, the bill considered engrossed, and House bill No. 59 was placed on final passage and passed the House by the following vote: Yeas, 70: nays, 19; absent or not voting 7.

Following House Bill 59 Through the Washington Legislature

House Bill 59 (HB 59) was introduced to the Washington Legislature during the 1909 session. The bill required 2/3 majority vote in each house because it was a Constitutional Amendment. Appearing below is a chronology of the bill through the legislature in 1909 that authorized the constitutional amendment vote on women’s suffrage, held November 8, 1910.

Representative T. J. Bell, a Tacoma Republican, introduced the legislation in the House on January 20, 1909. Bell was a wet or anti-prohibitionist who published the Tacoma News Herald. He and Representative Frank Bradsberry, a Republican from Sedro-Woolley, championed the legislation. The success of the legislation relied on Progressive affiliation rather than party-line votes. The bill was not highly publicized in the press, receiving only passing attention. Race track gambling and local option prohibition received much more press.1

January 20, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 88

HB 59 introduced by Rep. T. J. Bell, R. Pierce County

“An act to amend article 6 of the constitution of the State of Washington, relating to the qualification of voters within the state.” Emma Smith DeVoe drafted the suffrage legislation with Sen. George Cotterill, a Seattle Democrat and renowned reformer, and likely Bell the sponsor.

Referred to the Committee on Constitutional Revision. Chaired by anti- Edward B. Palmer.

Seattle Times

Representative Frank Bradsberry: “I believe women have been given the worst of it, and if they want anything from me they can have it. What’s more, I want to tell you fellows that they can come to my seat with any petitions or requests they have and I will put them through or the House will know there has been a fight.”


January 21, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 100

Upon request, the speaker re-referred HB No. 59 to the Committee on Privileges and Elections. Bell was a member of this Committee.


January 29, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 163, 165-167

REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES

House bill No. 59: Majority recommend that it do pass as amended; minority that it be indefinitely postponed.

SECOND READING OF BILLS
House of Representatives
Olympia, Wash. January 28, 1909

Mr. Speaker:

We, your Committee on Privileges and Elections, to whom was referred HB No. 59, entitled “An act to amend article six (6) of the Constitution of the State of Washington, related to the qualification of voters within the state,” have had the same under consideration and we, a majority, report the same back to the House with the recommendation that it do pass as amended:

That line 4 of section 3 of the printed bill, being line 6 of section 3 of the original bill, be amended by striking the word “the” after the word "within” and inserted in lieu thereof the word “this.”

John A. Fancher, Chairman (R-Spokane)

We concur in this report: Frank C. Jackson, T. J. Bell, W. J. Boone, Ole Hanson, R. S. Lambert.

 

House of Representatives
Olympia, Wash. January 28, 1909

Mr. Speaker:

We, your Committee on Privileges and Elections, to whom was referred HB No. 59, entitled “An act to amend article six (6) of the Constitution of the State of Washington, related to the qualification of voters within the state,” have had the same under consideration and we, a minority report the same back to the House with the recommendation that it be indefinitely postponed.

E. B. Palmer (R-King County)
J. R. Burke (R-Wahkiakum)

 

The bill was read the second time by sections and, on motion of Mr. Fancher, the committee amendment was adopted. Mr. Palmer moved the adoption of the minority report. Mr. Bell moved, as a substitute motion, the adoption of the majority report. Roll call on the substitute motion was demanded and the substitute motion was carried by the following vote; Yeas, 68; nays, 24; absent or not voting, 3.

Those voting yea were:

  • Anderson (John)
  • Anderson (Nels)
  • Anderson (W.T.)
  • Bell
  • Bird
  • Bolinger
  • Boone
  • Bradsberry
  • Buchanan
  • Buck
  • Byerly
  • Calkins
  • Cameron
  • Campbell (F.T.)
  • Campbell (J.E.)
  • Christensen
  • Clark
  • Cline
  • Cogswell
  • David
  • Denman
  • Edge
  • Eldridge
  • Fancher
  • Farnsworth
  • Fisher
  • French
  • Gordon
  • Hall
  • Halsey
  • Hanson (H.H.)
  • Hanson (Ole)
  • Hayward
  • Holm
  • Hubbell
  • Jackson (F.C.)
  • Jackson (R.A.)
  • Jeffries
  • Kayser
  • Krouse
  • Lambert
  • McArthur
  • McClure
  • McGregor
  • McInnis
  • McKinney
  • McMaster
  • McMillan
  • Morris
  • Reeve
  • Rogers
  • Rudene
  • Sayre
  • Scott
  • Shutt
  • Spedden
  • Stevens (A.M.)
  • Stone
  • Sweet
  • Taylor
  • Thompson (H.W.)
  • Thompson (T.A.)
  • Todd
  • Tonkin
  • Vollmer
  • Ward
  • Whalley
  • Young
  • Mr. Speaker (Leo O. Meigs)

Those voting nay were:

  • Beach
  • Bishop
  • Bugge
  • Burke
  • Cameron
  • Carlyon
  • Erickson
  • Halferty
  • Hewitt
  • Kenoyer
  • Leonard
  • Locke
  • Miller
  • Morse
  • Norris
  • Palmer
  • Renick
  • Sims
  • Slayden
  • Sparks
  • Stephens ( E.M.)
  • Tennant
  • Thayer
  • Webster

Those absent or not voting were:

  • Ghent
  • Stuart
  • Weir

On motion of Mr. Palmer, the rules were suspended, the second reading considered the third, the bill considered engrossed, and House bill No. 59 was placed on final passage and passed the House by the following vote: Yeas, 70: nays, 19; absent or not voting 7.

Those voting yea were:

  • Anderson (John)
  • Anderson (Nels)
  • Anderson (W.T.)
  • Bell
  • Bird
  • Bolinger
  • Boone
  • Bradsberry
  • Buchanan
  • Buck
  • Burke
  • Byerly
  • Calkins
  • Campbell (F.T.)
  • Campbell (J.E.)
  • Christensen
  • Clark
  • Cline
  • Cogswell
  • David
  • Denman
  • Edge
  • Eldridge
  • Fancher
  • Farnsworth
  • Fisher
  • French
  • Gordon
  • Halferty
  • Hall
  • Halsey
  • Hanson (H.H.)
  • Hanson (Ole)
  • Hayward
  • Holm
  • Hubbell
  • Jackson (F.C.)
  • Jackson (R.A.)
  • Jeffries
  • Kayser
  • Krouse
  • Lambert
  • Leonard
  • McArthur
  • McClure
  • McGregor
  • McInnis
  • McKinney
  • McMaster
  • McMillan
  • Morris
  • Reeve
  • Rogers
  • Rudene
  • Sayre
  • Scott
  • Shutt
  • Sparks
  • Spedden
  • Stevens (A.M.)
  • Stone
  • Sweet
  • Taylor
  • Thompson (H.W.)
  • Thompson (T.A.)
  • Todd
  • Vollmer
  • Ward
  • Whalley
  • Young
  • Mr. Speaker (Leo O. Meigs)
Those voting nay were:
  • Beach
  • Bishop
  • Bugge
  • Burke
  • Cameron
  • Carlyon
  • Erickson
  • Hewitt
  • Kenoyer
  • Miller
  • Morse
  • Palmer
  • Sims
  • Slayden
  • Stephens ( E.M.)
  • Tennant
  • Thayer
  • Tonkin
  • Webster
Those absent or not voting were:
  • Ghent
  • Locke
  • McMillan
  • Norris
  • Renick
  • Stuart
  • Weir

On motion of Mr. Carlyon, the rules were suspended and the chief clerk was directed to transmit to the Senate immediately House bill No. 59.


January 30, 1909

The Morning Olympian Gives an Account of Events

The bill came back to the House with a majority and minority report from committee, the latter recommending the indefinite postponement of the measure. Palmer, representing the minority, got first action by moving the indefinite postponement, whereupon Bell, chairman of the committee,(Fancher was the chair, Bell had introduced the bill) moved as a substitute the adoption of the majority report recommending the passage.

The arguments started. Jackson spoke in favor of woman’s suffrage and said the defeat of the motion meant denying to women the right to vote. Hanson also came to the rescue of the suffragettes, and sought to lighten the responsibility of the legislature on the question by stating that in passing the bill, the legislature didn’t at this time let the women vote, but that it would let the voters say as to that at the election on the constitutional amendment. Burke said the amendment would be voted down and that it merely meant an unnecessary expense. Shutt of Pierce took occasion to make a plea for the Indians.

Bell defended the measure, and declared that would be no extra expense to submit it to the people. E. G. Palmer2 of King said that in passing the bill they would be doing an idle thing, that from his observation along this line, nobody wanted woman’s suffrage. Bradsberry of Skagit county retorting to Palmer, expressed surprise to find the broad-minded reformer from King so narrow minded on this subject. He lamented the lack of intelligence displayed by opponent of the measure and scored them for their lack of gallantry. He declared that the corporations cannot control the votes of women. Palmer, he said, was a corporation lawyer, and he hoped Palmer would be voted down.

During the argument Beach of Mason, who also raised the point of useless expense, declared he had instructions from his wife to vote against the bill and he did so both times.

Upon roll call the majority report favoring the bill was adopted by a vote of 69 to 23.

The bill was then put upon its final passage, the vote standing 70 yeas and 18 nays and was declared passed and transmitted to the senate.

The Thurston county delegation was divided, Dr. P. H. Carlyon voting against the bill both times, and C. G. Morris of Rainier for it.

The women lobbyists working for the measure are jubilant over the house victory and are sanguine of carrying the senate, but there is quite a general feeling that the bill will run on the rocks in the senate.


February 1, 1909

Senate Journal, p. 209, 217-218

MESSAGE TO THE SENATE
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Olympia, Wash. February 1, 1909

Mr. President:

The House has passed . . .
Also House bill No. 59, entitled “An Act to amend article 6 of the Constitution of the state of Washington, relating to the qualification of voters.”
And the same are herewith transmitted.

Loren Grinstead, Chief Clerk


House bill No. 59, by Mr. Bell, entitled “An act to amend article VI of the constitution of the State of Washington, relating to the qualification of voters in the state:”

The bill was read first time.

Senator Williams moved that House bill No. 59 be indefinitely postponed.

Senator Cotterill moved as a substitute that the rules be suspended, the bill be read second time by title and ordered referred to the Committee on Constitution and Constitutional Revision.

The substitute motion carried.


February 2, 1909

Morning Olympian

Opponents of the equal suffrage bill attempted to give the measure a quick death in the senate yesterday afternoon, when it came over from the house, but failed.

Hardly had the clerk finished reading the title of the bill when Williams of Spokane asked to know if the measure was now before the senate. On being informed that it was, he moved for indefinite postponement. Several quickly seconded the motion but Cotterill rushed to the rescue by proposing as a substitute that the bill be referred to committee on constitutional revision.

Cotterill insisted that the bill be given at least fair treatment. Without further remarks the motion to refer was put by the president and declared lost. Division was demanded and on rising vote, it was found that the motion to refer to committee had carried by a vote of 22 to 13.

Senate Journal, p. 218

A telegram from Rebecca Foster, praying the enactment of a woman suffrage bill, was, on motion of Senator Nichols, ordered referred to the Committee on Constitution and Constitutional Revision.

The legislative journey through the Senate was to prove much more arduous. When the suffrage bill was introduced, Sen. E. M. Williams of Seattle immediately moved to indefinitely postpone the bill. Sen. George Cotterill rescued the bill by a motion to refer it to the Committee on Constitutional Revision. Suffragists persistently lobbied the legislators. Seattle activist Leonia Brown organized a meeting in Williams’ Seattle district and organized a petition in favor of the bill, but even these efforts did not sway him. Legislators had various reasons for supporting the legislation. Seattle Senator George U. Piper was aligned with the anti-prohibitionists, but became a suffragist ally “in honor of his dead mother, who had been ardently in favor of women suffrage.”3

The final floor vote was postponed, precipitating a serious split between May Arkwright Hutton and Emma Smith DeVoe. Hutton wanted to press for an immediate vote before the end of the session, but DeVoe preferred to have votes entirely in hand before calling for a vote. Dr. Cora Smith Eaton even suggested that Hutton had talked about buying the votes of Senators for $250.00 each. Eaton also accused Hutton of using vulgar language in front of the legislators.4


February 18, 1909

Senate Journal, p. 218

REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES
SENATE CHAMBER
Olympia, Wash., February 16, 1909

Mr. President:

We, your Committee on Constitution and Constitutional Revision, to whom was referred House bill No. 59, entitled “An act to amend article 6 of the constitution of the State of Washington, relating to the qualification of voters within the state,” have had the same under consideration, and we respectfully report the same back to the Senate with the recommendation that it be ordered out on general file.

Harry Rosenhaupt, Chairman

We concur in this report: Geo. F. Cotterill, Will G. Graves, W. B. Presby, E. M. Williams, J. W. Bryan, P. L. Allen

On motion of Senator Rosenhaupt, the report of the committee was adopted.


February 23, 1909

Senate Journal, p. 476

On motion of Senator Rosenhaupt, the rules were suspended and House bill No. 59 was taken up out of order.

House bill No. 59 entitled, “An act to amend article 6 of the constitution of the State of Washington, relating to the qualification of voters within the state,” was read third time.

The secretary called the roll on final passage and House bill No. 59 passed the Senate by the following vote:

Those voting aye were:

  • Allen
  • Arrasmith
  • Bassett
  • Blair
  • Booth
  • Brown
  • Bryan
  • Cotterill
  • Cox
  • Davis
  • Eastham
  • Falconer
  • Fatland
  • Fishback
  • Hutchineson
  • Huxtable
  • Kline
  • Knickerbocker
  • McGowan
  • Metcalf
  • Myers
  • Minkler
  • Paulhamus
  • Piper
  • Polson
  • Presby
  • Roberts
  • Rosenhaupt
  • Stevenson
  • Stewart

Those voting nay were:

  • Cameron
  • McGregor
  • Nichols
  • Potts
  • Rydstrom
  • Smith
  • Smithson
  • Williams
  • Mr. President (A. S. Ruth)

Absent or not voting were:

  • Anderson
  • Graves
  • Whitney

There being no objection the title of the bill was order to stand as the title of the act.5

Olympia Daily Recorder

There was no debate on the question in the senate this morning. The woman’s suffragists who have been maintaining an active lobby here during nearly the entire session, were present in strong force in the galleries when the measure cam up and quickly dispersed after the vote to spread the good news.


February 24, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 426

Message from the Senate.
Senate Chamber
Olympia, Wash., February 24, 1909

Mr. Speaker:

The Senate has passed:

House bill No. 59, entitled "An act to amend article 6 of the constitution of the State of Washington related to the qualification of voters within the state;"

And the same are herewith transmitted.

Wm. T. Laube, Secretary of the Senate


February 25, 1909

The Seattle Times

The question was not one of granting suffrage to women—the legislature having no right to grant suffrage to anybody—but merely the right to have the question submitted to a popular vote of the people at the next general election. Just why any legislator should have objected to this is not apparent, but it cost the suffragettes much trouble and expense and the legislature great annoyance, all of which might have been avoided.

Senate Journal, p. 559

SENATE CHAMBER
Olympia, Wash., February 24, 1909

The president signed House bills Nos. 59 . . .

House of Representatives Journal, p. 437, 447

House of Representatives
Olympia, Wash., February 25, 1909

Mr. Speaker:

Your Committee on Enrolled Bills, to whom was referred House bills Nos. 59 . . . have compared same with engrossed bills and find them correctly enrolled.

Respectfully submitted, T. A. Thompson, Chairman

We concur in this report: G. P. Halferty, Geo. B. Webster

MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE
SENATE CHAMBER
Olympia, Wash., February 25, 1909

Mr. Speaker:

The president has signed House bill No. 59; entitled “An act to amend article 6 of the constitution of the State of Washington, relating to the qualification of voters in the state:"

And same are herewith transmitted.

Wm. T. Laube, Secretary of the Senate.

Olympia Daily Recorder

At “high noon” today, in the presence of quite a gathering of friends the ceremony of signing the “Woman’s Suffrage” bill was performed by Acting Governor Hay. The bill as passed by both the house and senate was brought to the executive office in the hands of Mrs. Emma Smith DeVoe, state president of the Suffrage league. She was accompanied by Mrs. M. E. Hay, wife of the governor . . . Governor Hay then presented Mrs. De Voe with the pen used . . .

Text of the Bill

Session Laws 1909, pg. 2627
Chapter 18 Sections 1, 2, 3, and 4

HB 59

EQUAL SUFFRAGE, CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT PROPOSED

An act to amend article six (VI) of the constitution of the State of Washington relating to qualification of voters within the state.

SECTION 1. That at the general election to be held in this state on the Tuesday next succeeding the first Monday in November, 1910, there shall be submitted to qualified electors of this state for their adoption and approval an amendment to article six (VI) of the Constitution of the State of Washington, and it is hereby proposed that said article six (VI be amended, by striking and inserting in lieu thereof the following to be known as section one (1): Section 1. All persons of the age of twenty-one years or over, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections: They shall be citizens of the United States; they shall have lived in the state one year, and in the county ninety days, and in the city, town, ward or precinct thirty days immediately preceding the election at which they offer to vote; they shall be able to read and speak the English language; Provided, That Indians not taxed shall never be allowed the elective franchise: And further provided, that this amendment shall not affect the rights of franchise of any person who is now a qualified elector of this state. The legislative authority shall enact laws defining the manner of ascertaining the qualifications of voters as to their ability to read and speak the English language, and providing for punishment of persons voting or registering in violation of the provision of this section. There shall be no denial of the elective franchise at any election on account of sex.

SEC. 2. Secretary of State shall cause the amendment proposed in section one (1) of this act to be published for three months next preceding the said election therein described in some weekly newspaper in every county wherein a newspaper is published throughout the state.

SEC. 3. There shall be printed on all ballots provided for the said election the words: “For the proposed amendment of articles six (VI) of the Constitution relating to the qualifications of voters within this state”; “Against the proposed amendment to article six (VI) of the Constitution, relating to qualifications of voters within this state.”

SEC. 4. If it shall appear from the ballots cast at the said election that a majority of the qualified electors voting upon the question of the adoption of the said amendment have voted in favor of the same, the Governor shall make proclamation of the same in the manner provided by law and the said amendment shall be held to have been adopted and to have been a part of the Constitution from the time of such proclamation.

Passed by the House January 29,1909.
Passed by the Senate February 23, 1909.
Approved February 25, 1909.


March 4, 1909

House of Representatives Journal, p. 568

Message from the Governor
State of Washington Executive Department
Olympia, March 2, 1909

To the Honorable House of Representatives of the State of Washington

Gentlemen: I am directed by Acting Governor Hay to advise you that he has approved House bills as follows:

February 25: No. 59, entitled “An act to Amend article VI of the constitution of the State of Washington, relating to the qualifications of voters within the state.”

Respectfully,
Howard G. Cosgrove, Secretary to the Governor


NOTES

  1. Sheeran, Marte Jo, “The Woman Suffrage Issue in Washington, 1890-1910.” (M.A. Thesis, University of Washington, 1977), p. 89.
  2. Sheeran, p. 95. Sheeran says that Palmer was an old-line Conservative and worked with the liquor lobby to fight against the proposals of the Anti-Saloon League.
  3. Sheeran, p. 101.
  4. Eaton to Catt, 24 October 1909, Box 2 Folder 5, ESD Papers, Ross-Nazzal, pg. 147.
  5. Sheeran, p. 102. Sheeran states that DeVoe had floor action postponed until Sen. Piper had the necessary votes for passage.